ATD has a long-running expertise in airport market studies, airport capacity assessments, airport security procedures,

aeronautical studies for acceptance of new constructions and assessment of airport clearance zones.
The following list summarises some recent studies in this field:

Aeronautical study of Brezno / Krtičná airport, 2003

Aeronautical study and design of protection zones of Heliport for Air Rescue Service of the Ministry of Defense, Bratislava, 2003

Capacity assessment of Brno / Tuřany terminal, 2004

Capacity assessment of Ostrava - Mošnov terminal, 2004

Capacity assessment of Bratislava Airport terminal, 2004

Aeronautical study with acceptance of the object height of US Steel Košice, 2005

Security programme for Žilina Airport, 2005

Operation and economical executive jet analysis, University of Žilina, 2005

Analysis of zoning study for cargo terminal at M. R. Štefánika Bratislava Airport, 2005

Analysis of market potential and prediction of Ostrava / Mošnov Airport, 2005

Aeronautical study of poly-functional block of buildings - J&T Center Bratislava, 2005

Aeronautical study of borrow pit /Kotešová/ with respect to the protection zones of Žilina / Hričov Airport, 2005

Airport Liberec and the regional development potential study, 2005

Usability factor during low visibility operations at Bratislava Airport, 2007

Brno Airport terminal capacity simulations using Pax-Sim, 2007

ATD is a subcontractor to the following EC projects under Framework Programmes:

Framework Programme 5:

The following study has been elaborated in cooperation with STASYS Limited, UK and Letové prevádzkové služby Slovenskej republiky, (Slovak ANS provider), 2003 / 2004.

Title: Study on the provision of aeronautical information for the European Upper Flight Information Region (EUIR)
The main objective of the study was to identify a number of possible solutions for the provision of Aeronautical Information for the EUIR and make recommendations as to the preferred approach

to be taken. Furthermore, the study provides high-level guidance as to how it may be implemented. Assistance was provided for the drafting of the necessary legislation.

Framework Programme 6:

Nowadays, the management of different types of information has evolved independently based on sub-systems and service-specific requirements. As a result of this bottom-up approach,

today´s ATM information systems are insufficiently integrated, resulting in organisational and institutional barriers which prevent the timely use of relevant information. Although several initiatives

have been launched with the aim of studying the interoperability solutions, none of these projects identify the characteristics of the infrastructure required to make interoperability possible.

Although the SWIM concept is expected to represent the basis upon which the future interoperable ATM Systems will be built, there are still big uncertainties over its actual technological implementation.

The SWIM-SUIT Project will largely contribute to this need for technological assessment by developing a SWIM prototype providing the basis for assessing of the technological solutions adopted.

The significant involvement of users will also ensure that requirements for SWIM implementation will be identified and Legal and Financial implications will be assessed.
ATD is the leader of WP 4.2 - Evaluation Methods & Means

The objective of ASSTAR is to perform research into the operational and safety aspects of introducing the following ASAS Package II applications in order to realise the significant potential benefit

to the user community in the 2010 plus time frame:

The delegation of conflict resolution manoeuvres to the air, in radar controlled airspace (i.e. crossing and passing).

The use of ADS-B to support new operations in oceanic and other non-radar airspace, enabling more optimal routing, including enhanced use of wind corridors and passing and level changing.

Improvements to flight path efficiency currently restricted due to procedural separation standards.

The ATD role in the project is in particular: 
Participation on project management.

Review of deliverables - Procedure Definition for Radar Covered Airspace and Procedure Definition for Non-Radar Covered Airspace.

Analyses of the impact of project results on existing regulations, with particular attention to the operational procedures.

Reviewing Crossing and Passing procedures for inclusion in ICAO documents (PANS-ATM or regional SUPPS), and then addressing the provisions for separation and clarifying the regulatory issues.



The overall AirTN project objective is to step up the cooperation and coordination of research activities in aeronautics carried out at a national level through to the networking of research activities

at the EU level and to provide an effective platform of support for the ACARE initiative. It should also support the further implementation and development of the Strategic Research Agenda

as well as support EU and EUROCONTROL activities for the implementation of Single European Sky for seamless Air Traffic Management all over Europe. A further aim is to initiate possible joint actions.
The ATD role in the project is in particular:

Assessment of the research programmes and tools aimed at aerospace and aviation on a national level.

Study and transfer of the best practices for aviation research support and financing to the key people in the Slovak education and research institutions.

The following studies have been/are being elaborated on in cooperation with the EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre:

Title: Comprehensive study of the wake vortex phenomena to the assessment of its incorporation to ATM for safety and capacity improvements

Author: Peter Choroba

The overall objective of this PhD thesis was an understanding of the nature of wake turbulence phenomena in Air Traffic Management (ATM) for potential safety and capacity improvements. Therefore this study was defined in four main research areas: state-of-the-art physics, technology and operational procedures, definition of users' (pilots and air traffic controllers) requirements by operational survey, estimation of capacity benefit by fast-time simulation in Total Airspace Airport Modeller (TAAM) and safety analysis including probability risk assessment of wake vortex safety. We also introduced a new concept of dynamic separations with transitions between two separation modes depending on the actual meteorological conditions and within the safety analysis part of the thesis we proposed a new conservative probability model for wake vortex safety assessment.



Title: On the operational feasibility for synchronising Air Traffic for a higher throughput compared to the current ATM paradigm applied in the case of Central European Upper Airspace

Author: Lenka Dravecká

The main goal of this study was to achieve objective results of traffic synchronisation through a traffic flow capacity increase and a potential conflict situation decrease to support the operational feasibility applied in the case of the Central European Upper Airspace. The results of the study can assist in future throughput, controller´s productivity studies focused on the validation or implementation of traffic synchronisation concepts and procedures.

This research presents the first step towards an evaluation of the operational feasibility of this concept in the case of Central European Upper Airspace: the improvements of safety by removing potential conflict situations and increasing the airspace capacity and controller´s productivity as a result of traffic synchronisation.

The research consists of three parts. The aim of the first part is to demonstrate a simple synchronisation model and rule-base algorithm to analyse the efficiency (airspace throughput) of synchronising independent flows of traffic in the en-route environment.  In the second part, proposed synchronisation scenarios are applied and evaluated on up to three major flows in a case study of Central European Upper Airspace, with the traffic enhanced to the years 2009, 2012 and 2015. The simulations are performed with the Reorganized ATC Mathematical Simulator (RAMS PlusTM) - a fast-time simulation tool designed with a comprehensive range of ATM simulation capabilities and capable of modelling future operational concepts.  The aim of the last part is a statistical test to find out whether the outcome of the research is due to change, more precisely if the difference is significant or not significant to the basic situation.



Title: Analysis of Passenger Viewpoints and of the Practical Shift in Air Rail Intermodal Transport

Author: Antónia ÄŚokašová

Airport congestion is a mounting problem and is already a limiting factor at several airports.  European international hubs and major airports are operating at their maximum throughput for longer periods of the day, and some have already reached their operating limits as prescribed by related physical and environmental constraints. Existing studies suggest transferring some short-haul flights to high-speed trains in order to release runway and ATC resources, thus offering immediate relief to congestion, reducing the negative environmental impact, and, finally, improving ground access to airports

Studies into a transport shift from short-haul air traffic to high-speed trains did not focus on the quantitative analysis of benefits in terms of the reduction of air traffic demand.  Movement of passengers at an intermodal airport terminal was not thoroughly understood; the little information gathered is based on heuristics and assumptions.  The overall objective of the thesis is to tackle two issues related to air-rail intermodal transport: first to examine passenger travel requirements and passenger needs when undertaking an intermodal journey; secondly to analyse intermodal passenger flow and its impact on airport resources.  The study undertakes a microscopic passenger and baggage movement simulation at an intermodal airport terminal to analyse the impact of intermodal passenger flow on (1) passenger throughput in the terminal, (2) passenger delays, (3) availability of terminal resources, (4) passenger queue lengths and, (5) bottlenecks.


Title: Analysing the Impact of the Hub and Spoke System on European Air Traffic Management

Author: Hitham Fakih

The study is aimed at analysing the impact of the current hub and spoke network systems and also the emergence of new hubs. On the other hand, this study will also show whether the traditional hubs are saturated and if the secondary hubs created by LCCs will become major hubs.  The study will observe the past changes in traffic distribution that occurred in the past 10-15 years for new emerging hubs. The main objective of this study is to investigate the optimum hub location and the impact of the hub and spoke system of this network, using a new methodology similar to the clustering methodology.  The general procedure of creating a hub network would involve choosing an optimum number of hubs in a given network, locating the hubs and then allocating all the flow from the nodes through the hubs.


Title: Air passenger flow model

Author: Martin MaĹĄaš

This study is aimed at the development of a model of passenger flow in air transport for the purpose of evaluating different concepts of airport operation.  Different models are classified according to the activities of air passengers, i.e. walking, queuing and being served.  Walking models represent the behaviour of pedestrians instead of passengers and these are classified to: microsimulation models, Cellular Automata models, queuing theory based models, gas-kinetics based models and continuum physics based models.  Queuing and being served is represented by queuing theory based models or by simulation models. These models shall provide theoretical background for the development of an air-passenger flow model. This in turn would be used for the evaluation of the Airside-Landside Separation Concept.


The following studies have been/are being elaborated on in cooperation with Helios Technology, Ltd.:


Title: Airspace optimisation modelling

Author: Zoltan Bazso

To be able to analyse the current situation in Europe from an operational and economic point of view and make conclusions on possible improvements, as well as to be able to look at the possible future situation in European air traffic, we have started developing a tool that should make this possible. As a part of Helios Technology research and development, this tool has already been developed to the extent that we are already able to analyse the current situation in air traffic. As for inputs, we use data on actual flights in Europe which enables us to perform analyses of great precision. The basis of the tool is an algorithm that can model and measure the great circle distance flown by an aircraft in a block of airspace, which is defined by the user by horizontal coordinates and, if required, also by vertical limits. This seemingly simple algorithm allows for a number of other additional functions like the calculation of service units (SUs), or the calculation of the horizontal extension of the flight trajectory against the great circle distance in the particular airspace.

In cooperation with Helios Technology Ltd., we are currently elaborating a study into airspace optimisation using and further developing this tool to the enhanced stage. This tool will be then used to model different scenarios of airspace organisation and will look at the operational impacts of Temporarily Segregated Areas (TSAs). The study will also look at the consequences of re-locating the existing TSAs from an operational and an economical point of view.


Title: Airport Benchmarking

Author: Zoltan Bazso

This study was intended to give a review of the current situation in airport benchmarking area around the world and the forms of relationships between different shareholders and participants in this activity. The main objective was to make a list of relevant studies and approaches, and to explain the need to create an optimal set of performance indicators that would be recognised by all parties concerned. The study summarises the current situation in the area and gives an overview of the processes and activities which are currently undertaken. It also gives some suggestions on how to make airport benchmarking more recognised in the air transport industry.


Title: Contingency planning in ANS provision

Author: Jozef Paliga

This study was intended to provide a description of issues and attributes related to contingency planning, a definition of possible events leading to contingency arrangements and to elaborate a case study focused on contingency planning CBA modelling. Contingency planning is an essential part of providing an air traffic service. There are different aspects to contingency, relating to how to provide continuity of service during periods of equipment outage or staff shortage. Equipment can fail (surveillance, flight data processing etc) or there could be a staff shortage (illness, strikes). All of these aspects can cause a partial or full loss of air traffic service. When considering long term outages, failures and losses, the availability of ACCs is a major issue. The loss of a centre has not only safety implications but involves a severe disruption to services and results in costs to shareholders. The objective of the short study was to create guidelines for drafting an outline contingency plan taking all these issues into account. The goal was to focus on long term disruption of services, which are much more difficult to overcome than short-term ones.


Title: Fuel-burn model

Author: Ivan Baršovský

The aim of this study was to develop a model which assesses fuel burn, route time, distance and other parameters, based on different approach tracks. The work aimed to provide a general overview on flight efficiency, its impact on the environment, describe existing fuel burn models and compare them. The second objective was to create a model based on the BADA database which assesses fuel burn and fuel flow for the climb phase of flight, cruise phase of flight, descent phase and different approaches, based on flight track data at International standard atmosphere conditions (ISA), considering the type of aircraft, its type of engine and flight level. This model was designed to calculate fuel burn on a standard step down approach as well as fuel burn on a continuous descent approach. Results can be compared and used in cost benefit analysis in different projects concerning flight efficiency, emissions and other projects.


Title: Airport Safety Management Systems

Author: Daniel Komiňák

The aim of this study was to make a survey about airport safety management systems and provide a background on the different types of systems, different issues and regulatory requirements. An important part of the study was an elaboration of a case study and the development of guidelines for implementing a SMS at an airport.


The following study has been elaborated on in the cooperation with Airbus Industry:

Title: Overhead Stowage Compartments on Twin-aisle Aircraft

Author: Milan Štefánik

The study, which was performed for Airbus Marketing Department was aimed at the analysis of the overhead stowage compartments on the Airbus and Boeing wide-body families. The main purpose was to give Airbus payload accommodation specialists an idea about the current situation in the market, provide recommendations and guidelines for competitive cabin layout assessments and to create a database which simplifies the calculation of main overhead stowage compartment parameters on any Airbus or Boeing wide-body aircraft.


The following studies have been/are being elaborated on at the Air Transport Department:


Title: Optimisation of passenger flows in the new passenger terminal at Brno-TuĹ™any airport

Author: Milan Štefánik, Zoltan Bazso, Vratislav ÄŚelko

The goal of the study is to perform a fast-time simulation of the new departure terminal passenger flow at Brno-Tuřany airport with respect to possible future developments of growth of traffic and number of passengers, and thus identify the potential constraints to passenger flows using Prestons PaxSim software.


Title: Dynamic climatological data processing of occurrence of aviation weather hazards at Bratislava, Poprad - Tatry, Sliac and Kosice airports

Author: Sandra Krollová

The object of the work was to process some of the physical characteristics of selected aviation weather hazards. The processing was based on the statistical analysis of meteorological data measured at four Slovak international airports  Bratislava, Poprad  Tatry, Sliač and Košice. The obtained data cover a 6-year-long period. This fulfils the ICAO requirement for the processing of aviation climatological information. As a data source, regular aviation meteorological reports (METARs) were taken. Because of data coherence only the terms with full hours are considered. With the practical use of the obtained statistical results the inter-territorial comparison plays an important role and it can be supported by the united method of categorisation. In several physical deliberations and interpretations it was necessary to also consider the orographic specifications of selected localities. Using a calculation of various statistical characteristics and by applying the dynamic  climatological method, it was possible to achieve a certain model of occurrence of aviation weather hazards at a particular airport during the presence of individual weather types. The results are applicable in aviation weather forecasting and it is possible to use them by characterising the dynamic climate of other airports with similar orographic conditions. Because of limpidity and easy orientation the research conclusion is mostly depicted in graphical and table form. As a component of the main text examples of some weather types are used, which facilitate the orientation in the resolved topic.


Title: Feasibility study of Bratislava airport systems optimisation in respect to prevailing operational and meteorological conditions

Author: Sandra Krollová, Antonín Kazda

This study is built on the results from the previous study aimed at the Assessment of operational dynamic climatological data processing of the occurrence of aviation weather hazards at Bratislava airport. The main objectives of the current study are to optimise proposed equipment at the airport and its systems in respect of meteorological and operational conditions (wind, RVR, cloud base and its relation to Decision Height) and analyse additional operational parameters influencing the utilisation of the airport. The study will also support the decision-making process of the airport management through a Cost-benefit analysis of various scenarios proposed in the first phase of the study.


Title: Quality aspects in airport operations

Author: Benedikt Badánik

This study was aimed at the development of a new approach to quality assessment at airports, measuring the quality from an airlines point of view. It is a new approach as most of the previous research studies were conducted from the passengers’ side. This new approach has been tested at Airport Bratislava. Other important information was obtained from representatives of Airport Bratislava, Air Slovakia, Air Traffic Services of the Slovak Republic, Czech Airlines, SkyEurope Airlines and Slovak Airlines. The focal point is an airline and its needs and expectations. The results from the worldwide survey of service quality provided to airlines by airports are published in this study and the airports which provide the best service are ranked. Also the methodology of how a similar survey should be conducted is proposed. The differences in service quality perceived by pilots and their relationship to age and total flight hours is analysed and studied.


Title: Human factor in the Pilot-Aircraft system

Author: Branislav Kandera

The key factor in civil aviation is the people and the main facilitator for a safe and efficient air traffic operation is their cooperation, utilisation of technological systems and compliance with operational procedures. In practice, there is still a trend to focus on restricting people and their potential and abilities (e.g. expanding automation aims at minimising human errors using technological tools). But present development shifts to a more complex approach to problems. This involves a whole scale of approaches to the person, his environment, working situations and his approach to the technology, procedures that he/she complies with, environment and relationships to other people. A pilot is exposed to a wide spectrum of variables, different situations and conditions which very often cannot be anticipated. It is of vital importance to pay attention to all the factors which might have a bearing to pilots performance.

The study is focused on the most critical part of the system – the pilot. It evaluates his restrictions and options from a workload point of view, which significantly influences the reliability of the whole system. The study also describes the possibilities to optimise the workload in the common areas of the SHELL system (S Software - procedures, programme tools, etc., H  Hardware  technical equipment, E  Environment, L  Liveware  people). A person is at the centre of this system. It is the most critical but also the most flexible part of it. The interfaces in the model are not simple and many hazardous situations occur here. In order to remove pressure inside the system it is necessary to adapt the other systems to the person.


Title: System of anonymous information gathering for decrease of occurrence rate in the Slovak Republic

Author: Roman Topolčány

The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive view of aviation safety by means of global monitoring and evaluation of accidents, incidents and all factors that influence the occurrence rate in the Slovak Republic. The work was made as a background for continuous monitoring of aviation occurrence trends in civil aviation and it can be used as a background for administrative and technical arrangements to increase safety in aviation in accordance with the requirements of the European Union and international aeronautical organizations. A part of the study was the development of a database and software tool, taking into account the specifications of the area which allows the user to sort, search and filter the occurrence records. The developed System of Anonymous Information Gathering is tailored to the specific conditions of the Slovak Republic.


Title: Accident rate decrease in operations of civil aviation aircraft of the Slovak Republic

Author: Bohuslav Sedláček, Roman Topolčány

The objective of this study, funded by the Ministry of Transport, Communications and Postal Services of the Slovak Republic, was to clarify the reasons for the problems which most frequently lead to aviation occurrences in civil aviation aircraft operation in the Slovak Republic and to propose measures leading to a decrease in the number of aviation emergency situations and accidents in this area. The study uses the results and the tool developed under the frame of former studies of the Air Transport Department aimed at a decrease of the occurrence rate in operations of civil aircraft in the Slovak Republic.